Italian Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni

On October 22nd, 2022, Giorgia Meloni was sworn in as the first female Prime Minister of Italy. Her meteoric rise to power as the leader of the nationalist Brothers of Italy party has sent shockwaves across Europe and generated intense curiosity about how her staunchly conservative agenda will impact Italy and the European Union. At just 45 years old, Meloni has tremendous influence on reshaping Italy’s political landscape.

Giorgia Meloni’s Background and Early Political Activism

To understand Giorgia Meloni’s current ideology and priorities, it is instructive first to examine her background. Meloni was born in 1977 in Rome and had a challenging upbringing. She was raised primarily by her mother after her father left them. Despite the difficulties of poverty and moving repeatedly, Meloni showed early interest in activism and politics.

Meloni’s political awakening began at 15 years old when she joined the youth wing of the Italian Social Movement, a neo-fascist party formed by supporters of former dictator Benito Mussolini. Her early and sustained affiliation with radical right-wing politics heavily influenced Meloni’s ideological formation. In the 1990s, Meloni cut her teeth as an activist for the National Alliance, another party on Italy’s far right with vestiges of fascism.

In 2008, Meloni co-founded Brothers of Italy along with Ignazio La Russa and Guido Crosetto, former members of National Alliance. They championed conservative values, eurosceptism, and Italian nationalism in forming the new party. Over the next fifteen years, through fiery rhetoric and opposition to the political establishment, Meloni became the face of Brothers of Italy and amassed support.

Key Tenets of Meloni’s Nationalist Agenda

Meloni campaigned on the slogan “God, country, and family” which encapsulates her traditionalist worldview. Key pledges include tightening borders, promoting Italian families, and growing the economy. Meloni takes a hardline stance against immigration, especially from Muslim countries. She promises steep reductions in the number of migrants and quicker deportations for unlawful arrivals.

Additionally, Meloni strongly opposes expanding any LGBTQ or abortion rights. She actively spoke out against laws recognizing same-sex unions or allowing single women broader access to in-vitro fertilization. Instead, she advocates for so-called traditional families with multiple children and supports mothers staying home for longer maternity leaves.

For the economy, Meloni pledges tax cuts, reduced red tape for businesses, support for Italy’s manufacturing sectors, and expanded infrastructure spending particularly in the poorer south. Details remain vague for achieving those goals given Italy’s massive debt, now over 150% of GDP. Meloni also promises to maintain aid and armaments for Ukraine amidst Russia’s invasion.

Reactions from Italy and Abroad to Meloni’s Election

Meloni’s radical political roots and fiery rhetoric during the election raised alarm in many quarters both within Italy and internationally. Her Brothers of Italy party traces back directly to Mussolini’s regime, worrying many about Meloni’s commitment to democratic values. Furthermore, Meloni herself has a long history of controversial statements against immigration, Muslims, LGBTQ individuals and other marginalized groups.

Concerns spiked when her coalition won a clear majority in September 2022 elections positioning Meloni as Prime Minister. Left-leaning politicians and media portrayed Brothers of Italy as a danger to minorities, women, and democratic institutions. Some commentators drew parallels to other far-right populist regimes like Hungary under Viktor Orban which has severely weakened democratic checks and balances.

Internationally, most leaders offered cautious optimism about working with Meloni’s new government. US President Biden, UK Prime Minister Sunak, European Commission President von der Leyen and others stated they look forward to cooperating with the democratically elected Meloni. So far only Hungary’s Orban has lavished enthusiastic praise on Meloni as an ideological ally against progressive agendas.

Behind the scenes however, anxiety permeates many European governments about Italy’s shift to the radical right. There are concerns it may upset EU cooperation and joint support for Ukraine. Many anticipate a collision course between Meloni’s conservative positions against EU policies on migration, budgets, and social issues. The upcoming months will demonstrate Meloni’s willingness to compromise on her platform for Italy’s prosperity.

Meloni’s Governing Priorities and Open Questions

As Meloni steps into power, she faces immense challenges governing Italy amidst an energy crisis, rising inflation and the risk of recession. Italy relies heavily on Russian gas imports, leaving it extremely vulnerable after Russia’s cuts and threats to European energy supply. Coupled with rising borrowing costs and the highest debt level in the Eurozone, Italy has limited budgetary room to stimulate its struggling economy.

Meloni has few options but to continue backing EU support for Ukraine both for moral and economic reasons. She cannot afford to alienate European partners or close her eyes to Russian aggression that exacerbates Italy’s inflation and winter energy crunch. However, she must also deliver on promises to curb immigration and advance conservative social policies popular with her base but opposed in Brussels.

Meloni’s path forward remains murky. Will economic practicalities lead her to moderate controversial pledges on family policy, LGBTQ rights and migration as many predecessors have done? Or will she follow Orban’s footsteps embracing confrontation with the EU over ideological stances regardless of economic fallout? The choices Meloni makes in her first months in office will determine whether she unleashes instability or nurtures prosperity for Italy’s future.


Giorgia Meloni’s unprecedented rise to power signifies a political earthquake for Italy and uncertainty for the EU. As a veteran partisan promising a staunchly conservative agenda, Meloni elicits both hope and worry as she takes the reins. With an economy in crisis and formidable governing challenges ahead, she will soon have to decide whether to pursue divisive ideological aims or evolve toward balancing the books and coexistence with her critics. Italy’s prosperity hangs in the balance as Meloni steps onto the global stage.

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